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Reading Assessment Database: Search Results

The essential cognitive elements of the reading process have been outlined in the Cognitive Framework of Reading. To assist educators in organizing their assessment practices around the cognitive framework, we've created a way to easily search for published early reading assessments that specifically test skills and knowledge outlined by the Cognitive Framework of Reading.

To find out more about the Reading Assessment Database, you can read the overview page for a description of the database and tips for using it effectively.

You have just searched the Reading Assessment Database for Grades K-2 for published reading assessments. that test . There is 1 test that matches your search. Results are sorted by name.

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The RAD Clipboard - for keeping track of reading assessment tools you're interested in. The Reading Assessment Clipboard:
If you would like to keep track of reading assessments that interest you, you can add them to your "Assessment Clipboard" for later viewing and printing. You even have the option to e-mail the details about the assessments to yourself or others.

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This Assessment has already been added to your clipboard. Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening - 1-3 (PALS-1-3)

Author: Marcia Invernizzi, Joanne Meier, and Connie Juel
Date Published: 2005

To Purchase this assessment, you must contact the publisher.
University of Virginia


Cost $95.00 for materials to screen 25 students in fall and spring and an assessment training CD-ROM
Time to administer No time limits, but should be completed within a 2 week window
Administration Individual or Small Groups
Grades 1, 2, 3
Cognitive elements
Reading Comprehension
Cipher Knowledge
Phoneme Awareness
Letter Knowledge
Subtests and
skills assessed
Spelling — Student must correctly write increasingly difficult words from dictation.

Letter-Sound Knowledge — Student must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) that corresponds to each letter

Oral Reading — Student reads appropriate passages of text aloud while the teacher monitors oral reading accuracy and oral reading rate (fluency). Optional comprehension questions are provided for teachers who want to evaluate oral reading comprehension.

For students who have difficulty with the subtests above, more basic reading skills subtests are provided:

Lower-Case Alphabet Recognition — Student must correctly identify lower-case letters.

Letter-Sounds — Students must provide an appropriate sound (phoneme) for each letter or digraph presented.

Concept of Word — Students learn a rhyme by heart, then read the rhyme aloud with the teacher. The student points to words while reading and identifies words that the teacher points out.

Blending — Teacher reads words aloud with a clear pause between each phoneme, and the student must correctly identify the word.

Letter-Sounds in Context — Teacher says words aloud, and the student must provide the first letter or last letter or vowel of each word.
Language(s) tool can
be administered in
Score reporting
and test design data
This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided. This assessment is given to students across the state of Virginia every year, and because of this, item and subtest analyses can be conducted every year on many thousands of kindergarten students (over 500,000 students at the time of this writing). Reliability and validity measures have been regularly gathered since 1997, and are well within expected ranges. Predictive validity measures have been conducted using the Stanford-9 (required of students in Virginia) as well as subsequent measures gathered using the PALS 1-3.
Notes A CD-ROM with test-administration training is provided with this assessment.

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