by Zena H. Rudo

References and Credits


  • Dorn, S. (2003). High-stakes testing and the history of graduation. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 11(1). Accessed October 3, 2005, from v11n1/
  • Goldin, C. (1999). A brief history of education in the United States. (Historical Working Paper 0119). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. Retrieved October 3, 2005, from


Author: Zena H. Rudo

Content Editors: Joan Buttram, Karen Herbert, Michael Vaden-Kiernan, Diane Pan, Tara Leo Thompson

Copy Editor: Shaila Abdullah, Laura Shankland

Design and Layout: David Timmons

Insights on Education Policy, Practice, and Research may be reproduced and copies distributed to members by educational agencies, organizations, and associations. This publication was produced in whole or in part with funds from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, under contract number ED-01-CO-0009. The content herein does not necessarily reflect the views of the U.S. Department of Education, any other agency of the U.S. Government, or any other source.

Published in Insights on Educational Policy, Practice, and Research Number 18, December 2005, Enhancing Data Use and Quality to Shape Education Policy