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Table of Contents


Cognitive Elements of Reading

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework



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Related Resources
Glossary of reading terms

Instructional Resources - Literary References

Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities


Aaron, P.G. (1991). Can reading disabilities be diagnosed without using intelligence tests? Journal of Learning Disabilities. 24, 178-186.

Adams, M.J. (1990). Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Adams, M.J. and Bruck, M. (1993). Word recognition: The interface of educational Policies and scientific research. Reading and Writing: An interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 113-139.

Anderson, J.R., & Bower, G.H. (I973). Human associative memory. New York:Wiley.

Anderson, R. C., Hiebert, E. H., Scott, J., and Wilkinson, 1. (1985) Becoming a Nation of Readers. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education.

Baddeley, A.D., Ellis, N.C., Miles, T.R., and Lewis, V.J. (1982). Developmental and acquired dyslexia: A comparison. Cognition, 11, 185-199.

Baker, S.K., Kameenui, E.J., Simmons, D.C., Stahl, S. (1994). Beginning reading: Educational tools for diverse learners. School Psychology Review, 23, 372-391.

Ball, E.W. and Blachman, B.A. (1988). Phoneme segmentation training: Effect on Reading readiness. Annals of Dyslexia, 38, 208-225.

Ball, E.W. and Blachman, B.A. (1991). Does phoneme awareness training in Kindergarten make a difference in early word recognition and developmental Spelling? Reading Research Quarterly, 26(1), 49-66.

Balota, D., Pollatsek, A., & Rayner, K. (1985). The interaction of contextual constraints and parafoveal visual information in reading. Cognitive Psychology, 17, 364-390.

Barnes, M.A. and Dennis, M. (1996). Reading comprehension deficits arise from Diverse sources: Evidence from readers with and without developmental brain Pathology. In C. Cornoldi and J. Oakhill (Eds.), Reading comprehension Difficulties: Processes and intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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Barron, R. W. (1986). Word recognition in early reading: A review of the direct and indirect access hypotheses. Cognition, 24, 93-119.

Barron, R.W. (1994). The sound-to-spelling connection: Orthographic activation in Auditory word recognition and its implications for the acquisition of phonological Awareness and literacy skills. In V.W. Berninger (Ed.), The varieties of Orthographic knowledge I: Theoretical and developmental issues (pp. 219-242). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer.

Bateman, B. (1991). Teaching word recognition to slow-learning children. Reading, Writing and Learning Disabilities, 7, 1-16.

Baumann, J.F. and Kameenui, E.J. (1991). Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode To Voltaire. In J. Flood, J.J. Lapp, and J.R. Squire (Eds.), Handbook of research On teaching the English language arts (pp. 604-632). New York: MacMillan.

Bear, D.R. and Barone, D. (1989). Using children's spellings to group for word study And directed reading in the primary classroom. Reading Psychology, 10, 275-292.

Beck, I. and Juel, C. (1995). The role of decoding in learning to read. American Educator, 19, (2), 8-25.

Beck, I.L. and McKeown, M.G. (1986). Instructional research in reading: A Retrospective. In J. Orasanu (Ed.), Reading comprehension: From research To practice (pp. 113-134). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Beck, I.L. and McKeown, M.G. (1991). Social studies texts are hard to understand: Mediating some of the difficulties. Language Arts, 68, 482-490.

Beck, I.L., Omanson, R.C., and McKeown, M.G. (1982). An instructional redesign Of reading lessons: Effects on comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 462-481.

Beck, I.L., Perfetti, C.A., and McKeown, M.G. (1982). Effects of long-term Vocabulary instruction on lexical access and reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 462-481.

Becker, C.A. (1982). The development of semantic context effects: Two processes or two strategies? Reading Research Quarterly, 17, 482-502.

Becker, C. A. (1985). What do we really know about semantic context effects during reading? In D. Besner, T. Waller, and G. MacKinnon (eds), Reading Research: Advances in Theory and Practice, New York: Academic Press, vol. 5, pp. 125-66.

Becker, W.C. (1977). Teaching and reading language to the disadvantaged: What we have learned from field research. Harvard Educational Review. 47, 518-543.

Ben-Dror, I., Pollatsek, A., and Scarpati, S. (1991). Word identification in isolation and in context by college dyslexic students. Brain and Language, 40, 471-90.

Bentin, S. and Leshem, H. (1993). On the interaction between phonological awareness and reading acquisition: It's a two-way street. Annuals of Dyslexia, 43, 125-148.

Bertelson, P. (1986). The onset of literacy: Liminal remarks. Cognition. Vol 24(1-2), 1-30.

Biemiller, A. (1977). Relationships between oral reading rates for letters, words, And simple text in the development of reading achievement. Reading Research Quarterly, 13, 223-253.

Bishop, D.V.M. and Adams, C. (1990). A prospective study of the relationship between specific language impairment, phonological disorders and reading retardation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 31, 1027-1050

Bissex, G.L. (1980). GYNS AT WRK: A Child Learns to Read and Write. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Blachman, B. (1984). Relationship of rapid naming ability and language analysis skills to kindergarten and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 76, 610-622.

Bond, G.L. and Dykstra, R. (1967). The cooperative research programme in first grade Instruction. Reading Research Quarterly, 2, 5-142.

Bowey, J.A. (1994). Phonological sensitivity in novice readers and nonreaders. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 58, 135-159.

Bowey, J.A. (1995). Socioeconomic status differences in preschool phonological sensitivity and first-grade reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 476-487.

Bradley, L. (1989). Predicting learning disabilities. In J. Dumont & H. Nakken (Eds.), Learning Disabilities: Vol. 2. Cognitive, social and remedial aspects (pp. 1-18). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Swets.

Bradley, L. and Bryant, P. (1978). Difficulties in auditory organization as a possible cause of reading backwardness. Nature, 271, 746-747.

Bradley, L. and Bryant, P.E. (1983). Categorizing sounds and learning to read: A Causal connection. Nature, 30, 419-421.

Bradley, L., and Bryant, P.E. (1985). Rhyme and Reason in Reading and Spelling. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Bradley, L., & Bryant, P. (1991). Phonological skills before and after learning to read. In S. A. Brady & D. P. Shankweiler (Eds.), Phonological processes in literacy: A tribute to Isabelle Y Liberman (pp. 37-45). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Briggs, P., Austin, S., and Underwood, G. (1984). The effects of sentence context in good and poor readers: A test of Stanovich's interactive-compensatory model. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 54-61.

Brown, D. L., and Briggs, L. D. (1991). Becoming literate: The acquisition of story discourse. Reading Horizons, 32 (2), 139-153.

Brown, I. S., and Felton, R. H. (1990). Effects of instruction on beginning reading skills in children at risk for reading disability. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary journal, 2, 223-41.

Brown, R. (1957). Linguistic determinism and the part of speech. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 55, 1-5.

Bruck, M. (1988). The word recognition and spelling of dyslexic children. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 51-69.

Bruck, M. (1990). Word-recognition skills of adults with childhood diagnoses of Dyslexia. Developmental Psychology, 26(3), 439-454.

Bruck, M. (1992). Persistence of dyslexics' pbonological awareness deficits. Developmental Psychology, 28, 874-886.

Bryant, P. and Goswami, U. (1986). Strengths and weaknesses of the reading level design: A comment on Backman, Mamen, and Ferguson. Psychological Bulletin, 100(1), 101-103.

Bryant, P.E., MacLean, M., Bradley, L.L. and Crossland, J. (1990). Rhyme and alliteration, phoneme detection, and learning to read. Developmental Psychology, 26, 429-438

Butler, S.R., Marsh, H.W., Sheppard, M.J and Sheppard, L.J. (1985). Seven-year longitudinal study of the early prediction of reading achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 349-361.

Byrne, B. (1992) Studies in the acquisition procedure for reading: Rationale, hypotheses, and data. In P.B. Gough, L.C. Ehri and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading acquisition. (pp. 1-34). Hillsdale, NJ, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Byrne, B. (1996). The learnability of the alphabetic principle: Children's initial hypotheses about how print represents spoken speech. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17, 401-426.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1989). Phonemic awareness and letter knowledge in the child's acquisitions of the alphabetic principle. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 313-321.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1990). Acquiring the alphabetic principle: A case For teaching recognition of phoneme identity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 805-812.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1991). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic Awareness to young children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83(3), 451-455.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1993). Evaluation of a program to teach phonomic Awareness to young children: A one year follow up. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85, 104-111.

Byrne, B. and Fielding-Barnsley, R. (1995). Evaluation of a program to teach phonemic Awareness to young children. A 2- and 3- year follow up and a new preschool Trial. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87(3), 488-503.

Carroll, J.B. (1977). Developmental parameters in reading comprehension. In J.T. Guthrie (Ed.), Cognition, curriculum, and comprehension (pp. 25-51). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Castle, J. M., Riach, J., and Nicholson, T. (1994). Getting off to a better start in reading and spelling: The effects of phonemic awareness instruction within a whole language program. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86, 350-359.

Chall, J.S. (1983). Stages of Reading Development. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chall, J.S. (1989). Learning to read: The great debate twenty years later. A response To "Debunking the great phonics myth." Phi Delta Kappan, 71, 521-538.

Chall, J.S. (1996). Learning to read: The great debate (revised, with a new forward). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chaney, C. (1992). Language development, metalinguistic skills, and print awareness in 3-year-old children. Applied Psycholinguistics, 13, 485-514.

Chiesi, H.L., Spilich, G.J., and Voss, J.F. (1979). Acquisition of domain-related Information in relation to high and low domain knowledge. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 18, 257-274.

Clay, M. (1979a). Reading: The patterning of complex behavior. Auckland: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1979b). The early detection of reading difficulties. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. (1985). The Early Detection of Reading Difficulties. Auckland, New Zealand: Heinemann.

Clay, M.M., and Imlach, R.H. (1971). Juncture, pitch and stress as reading behavior Variables. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 133-139.

Coltheart, M. (1978). Lexical access in simple reading tasks. In G. Underwood (Ed.), Strategies of information processing (pp. 151-216). London: Academic Press.

Corley, P.J. (1988). A developmental analysis of sentence comprehension abilities in good and poor readers. Educational Psychologist, 23, 57-75.

Cromer, W. (1970). The difference model: A new explanation for some reading Difficulties. Journal of Educational Psychology, 61, 471-483.

Cunningham, A.E. (1990). Explicit versus implicit instruction in phonemic awareness. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 50, 429-444.

Cunningham, A.E., and Stanovich, K.E. (1993). Children's literacy environments and Early word recognition skills. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 5, 193-204.

Curtis, M.E. (1980). Development of components of reading skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72(5), 656-669.

Daneman, M. (1988). Word knowledge and reading skill. In M. Daneman, G. MacKinnon, and T.G. Walker (Eds.), Reading Research: Advances in theory And practice (pp. 145-175). San Diego: Academic.

Danks, J. (1980). Comprehension in listening and reading: Same or different? In J. Danks and K. Pezdek (Eds.), Reading and understanding (pp. 25-40). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

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Dickinson, D.K. and Snow, C.E. (1987). Interrelationships among prereading and oral language skills in kindergartners from two social classes. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2, 1-25.

Dickinson, D.K. and Tabors, P.O. (1991). Early literacy: Linkages between home, School, and literacy achievement at age five. Journal of Research in Childhood Education, 6(1), 30-46.

Dowhower, S.L. (1987). Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly. Vol 22(4), 389-406.

Duker, S. (1965). Listening and reading. Elementary School Journal, 65, 321-324.

Durrell, D.D. and Hayes, M. (1969). Durrell listening-reading series: Manual for listening and reading tests. New York: Psychological Corporation.

Dykstra, R. (1968). The effectiveness of code- and meaning-emphasis beginning Reading programs. The Reading Teacher, 22, 17-23.

Ehri, L. (1977). Do adjectives and functors interfere as much as nouns in naming pictures? Child Development, 48, 697-701

Ehri, L.C. (1991). Learning to read and spell words. In L. Rieben and C.A, Perfetti (Eds.), Learning to Read: Basic Research and Its Implications (pp. 57-73). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. (1992). Reconceptualizing the development of sight word reading and its Relationship to recoding. In P. Gough, L. Ehri, and R. Treiman (Eds.), Reading Acquisition (pp. 107-143). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. (1994). Development of the ability to read words: Update. In R. Ruddell and H. Singer (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of reading (4th ed., pp. 323-358). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.

Ehri, L.C. (1995). Phases of development in learning to read words by sight. Journal Of Research in Reading, 18, 116-125.

Ehri, L.C. (1998). Word reading by sight and by analogy in beginning readers. In C. Hulme and R. Joshi (Eds.), Reading and Spelling; Development and Disorders (pp. 87-111). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Ehri, L.C. and Robbins, C. (1992). Beginners need some decoding skill to read by Analogy. Reading Research Quarterly, 27, 13-26.

Ehri, L.C. and Sweet, J. (1991). Fingerpoint-reading of memorized text: What enables Beginners to process the print? Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 442-462.

Ehri, L.C., and Wilce, L.S. (1985). Movement into reading: Is the first stage of printed Word learning visual or phonetic? Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 163-179.

Ehri, L.C. and Wilce, L.S. (1987a). Cipher versus cue reading: An experiment in Decoding acquisition. Journal of Educational Psycholgy, 79, 3-13.

Ehri, L.C. and Wilce, L.S. (1987b). Does learning to spell help beginners learn to read Words? Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 47-65.

Ehrlich, M.F., Kurtz-Costes, B., & Loridant, C. (1993). Cognitive and motivational determinants of reading comprehension in good and poor readers. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25, 365-381.

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Evans, M. A., and Carr, T. H. (1985) Cognitive abilities, conditions of learning, and the early development of reading skill. Reading Research Quarterly, 20, 327-50.

Felton, R. H. (1993). Effects of instruction on the decoding skills of children with phonological-processing problems. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 26, 583-589.

Felton, R.H. and Pepper, P.P. (1995). Early identification and intervention of phonological deficits in kindergarten and early elementary children at risk for reading disability. School Psychology Review, 24(3), 405-414.

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Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Beeler, T., Winikates, D., and Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early Interventions for Children with Reading Problems: Study Designs and Preliminary Findings. Learning Disabilities: A Multi-Disciplinary Journal, 8, 63-71.

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Foorman, B.R., Francis, D.J., Winikates, D., Mehta, P., Schatschneider, C., and Fletcher, J.M. (1997). Early interventions for children with reading disabilities. Scientific Studies of Reading. Vol 1(3). 255-276.

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