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Cognitive Framework of Reading Reading Assessment Database Short Papers Reading First Links
Table of Contents


14 Cognitive Elements of Reading
- 1. Reading Comp.
- 2. Language Comp.
- 3. Background
- 4. Linguistic
5. Phonology
- 6. Syntax
- 7. Semantics
- 8. Decoding
- 9. Cipher
- 10. Lexical
- 11. Phoneme
- 12. Alphabetic
- 13. Letter
- 14. Concepts

Reading Assessment Techniques

Research Evidence

Using the Framework


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Related Resources
Glossary of reading terms

Instructional Resources - Literary References

Instructional Resources - Instructional Activities


Visual Map of the Cognitive Elements of Reading Speech is the most typical form of language, and in order to understand speech, a child must be able to clearly hear, distinguish, and categorize the phonemes within the speech. A child who is unable to distinguish between similar phonemes may develop difficulties with comprehension. A child who has difficulty with English phonology may not be able to hear the difference between words like "thin" and "fin" or "here" and "hair," and those words may confuse the child when they come up in context.

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Archived Resource

The resources listed on this website are from a past project. The Reading Assessment Database and external links have not been updated since 2009.

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