Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Levine, D. U., & Lezotte, L. W. (1990). Unusually effective schools: A review and analysis of research and practice. Madison, WI: The National Center for Effective Schools Research and Development.

This articles outlines the correlates of the effective schools movement, the driving force behind much of the school reform that has occurred in the last ten years. There are eight key areas that characterize unusually effective schools: productive school climate and culture, focus on student acquisition of central learning skills, appropriate monitoring of student progress, practice-oriented staff development at the school site, outstanding leadership, salient parent involvement, effective instructional arrangements and implementation, and high operationalized expectations and requirements for students. The authors also added five other qualities that had not been researched or completely investigated at the time of publication: student sense of efficacy or futility, mutlicultural instruction and sensitivity, personal development of students, rigorous and equitable student promotions, policies and practices, and student responsibility for learning.

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