Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Kendall, J. S., & R. J. Marzano (1996). Content knowledge: A compendium of standards and benchmarks. for K-12 education. Aurora, CO: Mid-Continent Regional Educational Laboratory.

This document provides an overview of current efforts to develop standards across subject areas, describes differences that have become apparent since the beginning of the standards movement, provides a model for standards and benchmarks identification, and applies this model to identify standards and benchmarks in the subject areas. A number of issues were identified that must be reconciled in order to develop internally consistent models of standards and benchmarks. The authors developed a model for this study that included: a literacy approach to content; a dedicated set of standards on thinking and reasoning (called life skills); a focus on content standards; and benchmarks for grade clusters. Implementation issues are also discussed. This report reprints, with little or no revision, standards that were identified in mathematics, science, history, language arts, geography, the arts, health, civics, economics, foreign language, physical education, and behavioral studies. Also included are standards for life skillsÑthinking and reasoning, working with others, self-regulation, and life workÑas well as a bibliography.

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