Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Yager, R. E. (1991). The constructivist learning model: Towards real reform in science education. Science Teacher, 58 (6), 52-57.

How can a teacher apply ideas from the constructivist learning model to classroom teaching? This article reviews the main ideas of the constructivist learning theory as well as the epistemological shift in the view of scientific knowledge, and suggests ways of applying these ideas to science teaching. Yager presents a teaching model developed by the National Center for Improving Science Education that is based on the constructivist learning model and includes four aspects: invitation, exploration, proposed explanation and solution, and taking action. Specific strategies that science teachers can use to help students construct their own meaning are listed. In addition, the article contains a self-check instrument that can be used to determine the extent to which a teacher is basing his or her practice on constructivist learning theory. Yager concludes with the recommendation that this model should also be used in preparing new teachers.

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