Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Watts, K. H. (1996). Bridges freeze before roads. In T. Guskey. (Ed.), Communicating student learning: The 1996 ASCD yearbook (pp. 6-12). Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Watts states that educators need more than grades and standardized tests to communicate student achievement. Alternate means of communicating student learning can be divided into four categories: visible evidence through portfolios, exhibitions, displays or work, presentation, and video; ranking or rating of student achievement against predetermined standards through sampling, rubric grades and checklists; evidence of learning through self-assessment or peer evaluation; and two-way communication in conferences. She states that promoting new kinds of assessment is dependent upon the school culture and changing the patterns of norms in a community. When the alternative assessment becomes part of the instructional process, student learning increases.

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