Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Guskey, T. (1996). Reporting on student learning. Lessons from the past—prescriptions for the future. In T. Guskey. (Ed.), Communicating student learning: The 1996 ASCD yearbook (pp. 13-24). Alexandria, VA: Association of Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Guskey provides a historical perspective of educational grading and reporting. He considers that there are effective and ineffective strategies in this process; that grading and reporting are not essential to instruction; that there is always a degree of subjectivity in grading and reporting; that grades may have a value as a reward but have no value as punishment; and that grading on the curve is ineffective in promoting student learning. He advocates that by relating grading and reporting to learning criteria, teachers are able to communicate a clear set of learning objectives and appropriate response to that learning objective. He provides three guidelines for grading: begin with a clear statement of purpose, provide an accurate statement of what is to be learned, and use grading and reporting to enhance learning.

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