Annotated Bibliography of Resources for Educational Reform, Coherent Teaching Practice, and Improved Student Learning

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  • Hord, S. M. (1992). Facilitative leadership: The imperative for change. Austin, TX: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

This review and synthesis of the literature begins with a brief history of approaches to change and the emerging notion that facilitating leaders, or change agents, are needed in any change effort. Hord describes the individuals who might serve as leaders, noting that leadership is not the same as management. Leadership is most often provided by the principal, by leadership teams, or by the superintendent. Hord identifies six categories of actions used by leaders to guide and support change: creating an atmosphere and culture for change; developing and communicating the vision; planning and providing resources; providing training and development; monitoring and checking progress; and continuing to give assistance. Finally, she describes the "higher order" leadershipÑtransformational, ethical, sharedÑ needed in restructuring and systemic change. Skills or competencies that restructuring leaders need are listed, and the roles of leaders throughout a process of change are described.

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