# Mathematics

## Grade 4

## Measurement and Data

### CC.4.MD.2

Solve problems involving measurement and conversion of measurements from a larger unit to a smaller unit.

Use the four operations to solve word problems involving distances, intervals of time, liquid volumes, masses of objects, and money, including problems involving simple fractions or decimals, and problems that require expressing measurements given in a larger unit in terms of a smaller unit. Represent measurement quantities using diagrams such as number line diagrams that feature a measurement scale.

### CC.4.MD.5.a,b

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:

- An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
- An angle that turns through n one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

## Numbers and Operations Base Ten

### CC.4.NBT.5

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

Multiply a whole number of up to four digits by a one-digit whole number, and multiply two two-digit numbers, using strategies based on place value and the properties of operations. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

### CC.4.NBT.6

Use place value understanding and properties of operations to perform multi-digit arithmetic.

Find whole-number quotients and remainders with up to four-digit dividends and one-digit divisors, using strategies based on place value, the properties of operations, and/or the relationship between multiplication and division. Illustrate and explain the calculation by using equations, rectangular arrays, and/or area models. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to whole numbers less than or equal to 1,000,000. A range of algorithms may be used.)

## Numbers and Operations — Fractions

### CC.4.NF.1

Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n × a)/(n × b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

### CC.4.NF.2

Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

### CC.4.NF.3a,b,c,d

Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

Understand a fraction a/b with a > 1 as a sum of fractions 1/b. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

- Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining andseparating parts referring to the same whole.
- Decompose a fraction into a sum of fractions with the same denominator in more than one way, recording each decomposition by an equation. Justify decompositions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.
- Add and subtract mixed numbers with like denominators, e.g., by replacing each mixed number with an equivalent fraction, and/or by using properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
- Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

### CC.4.NF.4a,b

Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a whole number. (Grade 4 expectations in this domain are limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100.)

- Understand a fraction a/b as a multiple of 1/b. For example, use a visual fraction model to represent 5/4 as the product 5 × (1/4), recording the conclusion by the equation 5/4 = 5 × (1/4).
- Understand a multiple of a/b as a multiple of 1/b, and use this understanding to multiply a fraction by a whole number. For example, use a visual fraction model to express 3 × (2/5) as 6 × (1/5), recognizing this product as 6/5. (In general, n × (a/b) = (n × a)/b.)